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[59] Mozambique's decision to enforce UN sanctions against Rhodesia and deny that country access to the sea led Ian Smith's government to undertake overt and covert actions to oppose the country. A law had been passed on the initiative of the relatively unknown Armando Guebuza of the FRELIMO party, ordering the Portuguese to leave the country in 24 hours with only 20 kilograms (44 pounds) of luggage. In a 2006 survey, three-quarters of Mozambicans said that in the past five years their economic position had remained the same or become worse. FRELIMO won twenty-eight mayoral positions and the majority in twenty-nine municipal assemblies, while RENAMO won five mayoral positions and the majority in four municipal assemblies. Mozambique's currency is called Metical (plural: Meticais) and banknotes are in denominations of 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 Meticais. There are also institutes which give more vocational training, specialising in agricultural, technical or pedagogical studies, which students may attend after grade 10 in lieu of a pre-university school. The official language is Portuguese. The new constitution enacted in 1990 provided for a multi-party political system, market-based economy, and free elections. "Projecções da População — Instituto Nacional de Estatistica". Health expenditure per capita was 42 US$ (PPP) in 2004. As of December 2011, 240,000 were receiving such treatment, increasing to 416,000 in March 2014 according to the health authorities. The voting was conducted in an orderly fashion without violent incidents. After over four centuries of Portuguese rule, Mozambique gained independence in 1975, becoming the People's Republic of Mozambique shortly thereafter. [65], Mozambique is one of the poorest and most underdeveloped countries in the world, even though between 1994 and 2006 its average annual GDP growth was approximately 8%. Mozambique was ruled by Portugal, and they share a main language (Portuguese) and main religion (Roman Catholicism). Mozambique (/ˌmoʊzæmˈbiːk/), officially the Republic of Mozambique (Portuguese: Moçambique or República de Moçambique, Portuguese pronunciation: [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ ðɨ musɐ̃ˈbikɨ]; Chichewa: Mozambiki; Swahili: Msumbiji; Tsonga: Muzambhiki), is a country located in Southern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Eswatini (Swaziland) and South Africa to the southwest. [citation needed] Space in Mozambican universities is extremely limited; thus most pupils who complete pre-university school do not immediately proceed on to university studies. Beginning in 1998, Mozambique has reformed the formal part On 5 September 2014, former president Guebuza and the leader of RENAMO Dhlakama signed the Accord on Cessation of Hostilities, which brought the military hostilities to a halt and allowed both parties to concentrate on the general elections to be held in October 2014. [16] Finland[61] and the Netherlands are becoming increasingly important sources of development assistance. [16] In 2013 about 80% of the population was employed in agriculture, the majority of whom were engaged in small-scale subsistence farming[69] which still suffered from inadequate infrastructure, commercial networks, and investment. However, the country is still one of the poorest and most underdeveloped countries in the world,[12] ranking low in GDP per capita, human development, measures of inequality and average life expectancy.[13]. Other groups include Makonde, Yao, Swahili, Tonga, Chopi, and Nguni (including Zulu). Gross capital formation (% of GDP) n.a. Population using improved sanitation facilities (%) n.a. Suffrage is universal at eighteen. Like its Commonwealth neighbours, traffic circulates on the left. Oxford University Press, 2017. The PPP covered those From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The metical (/ ˈmɛtɪˌkæl /; plural: meticais) is the currency of Mozambique, abbreviated with the symbol MZN or MT. The World Bank in 2007 talked of Mozambique's 'blistering pace of economic growth'. All figures are live mid-market rates, which are not available to consumers and are for informational purposes only. Inland states like the Kingdom of Zimbabwe and Kingdom of Mutapa provided the coveted gold and ivory, which were then exchanged up the coast to larger port cities like Kilwa and Mombasa. [29], During the war, RENAMO proposed a peace agreement based on the secession of RENAMO-controlled northern and western territories as the independent Republic of Rombesia, but FRELIMO refused, insisting on the undivided sovereignty of the entire country. [16] The SADC free trade protocol is aimed at making the Southern African region more competitive by eliminating tariffs and other trade barriers. [19], In the central part of the Mozambique territory, the Portuguese attempted to legitimise and consolidate their trade and settlement positions through the creation of prazos (land grants) tied to their settlement and administration. It is bound by Swaziland to the south, South Africa to the southwest, Zimbabwe to the west, Zambia and Malawi to the northwest, Tanzania to the north and the Indian Ocean to the east. Groups of women in the northern part of the country perform a traditional dance called tufo, to celebrate Islamic holidays. Some of the instruments used in Mozambican musical expression include drums made of wood and animal skin; the lupembe, a woodwind instrument made from animal horns or wood; and the marimba, which is a kind of xylophone native to Mozambique and other parts of Africa. Coordinates: 18°15′S 35°00′E / 18.250°S 35.000°E / -18.250; 35.000. Financed largely by international donors, a very successful voter registration was conducted from July to September 1999, providing voter registration cards to 85% of the potential electorate (more than seven million voters). Bantu people comprise 97.8% of the population, with the rest made up of Portuguese ancestry, Euro-Africans (mestiço people of mixed Bantu and Portuguese ancestry), and Indians. Football (Portuguese: futebol) is the most popular sport in Mozambique. 1 Metical is the equivalent of 100 Centavos. There are also important Pakistani, Indian associations as well as some Shia communities. The new government under president Samora Machel established a one-party state based on Marxist principles. It was used to refer to the gold dinar coin that was widely used across many nations in Africa before the 19th Century. The US$, South African rand, and recently the euro are also widely accepted and used in business transactions. The work of Methodism in Mozambique started in 1890. New pastors are ordained each year. MZM: In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Mozambique Metical. The country's economy is based largely on agriculture, but industry is growing, mainly food and beverages, chemical manufacturing and aluminium and petroleum production. Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique, is a country in southeastern Africa. [112], Portuguese is the primary language of instruction in all of the Mozambican schools. Since its formation in 1994, the National Assembly has made progress in becoming a body increasingly more independent of the executive. Rainfall is heavy along the coast and decreases in the north and south. The history pertaining to the Mozambican Metical exists in two phases. As of 2005[update] there were 3,123 km of railway track, consisting of 2,983 km of 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) gauge, compatible with neighbouring rail systems, and a 140 km line of 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) gauge, the Gaza Railway. Since 2001, Mozambique's annual average GDP growth has been among the world's highest. ), 26.264 (2007), 25.4 (2006) Fiscal year: calendar year During most of the civil war, the FRELIMO-formed central government was unable to exercise effective control outside of urban areas, many of which were cut off from the capital. The Baháʼí Faith has been present in Mozambique since the early 1950s but did not openly identify itself in those years because of the strong influence of the Catholic Church which did not recognise it officially as a world religion. A large Shona-speaking area extends between the Zimbabwe border and the sea: this was formerly known the Ndau variety[102] but now uses the orthography of the Standard Shona of Zimbabwe. In the late medieval period, these towns were frequented by traders from Somalia, Ethiopia, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, and India. [111], The official HIV prevalence in Mozambique in 2011 was 11.5% of the population aged between 15 and 49 years. In this article, we are providing you with the list of country capitals and currency. Cyclones are common during the wet season. 83/2010, of December 31), approved by the Government of Mozambique, entered into force on July 11, 2011 laying down the rules and procedures to be followed in the execution of deeds, businesses, transactions and foreign exchange operations under the Foreign Exchange Law (Law no. It received diplomatic and some military support from Cuba and the Soviet Union and proceeded to crack down on opposition. Many Mozambican slaves were supplied by tribal chiefs who raided warring tribes and sold their captives to the prazeiros. The third stage involved the printing of notes in denominations of 500, 1,000-, 5,000-, 10,000-, 20,000-, 50,000-, 100,000-, 200,000-, and 500,000 meticais which took place between 1991 and 2003. RENAMO and some other opposition parties made claims of election fraud and denounced the result. The government would go on to approve a new general elections law in May 2009 that contained innovations based on the experience of the 2003 municipal elections. The major cities are Maputo, Beira, Nampula, Tete, Quelimane, Chimoio, Pemba, Inhambane, Xai-Xai and Lichinga. Public-private partnership Bantu-speaking people's migration into Mozambique dates as far back as the 4th century BC. [citation needed]. Columbia University Press, 2004. The monsoon influence is strongest in the northeast but is modified somewhat in the south by the island barriers of Madagascar, the Comoros, and the Seychelles. There are about 31 million people. According to 2010 estimates, the literacy rate of Mozambique was 56.1% (70.8% male and 42.8% female). [citation needed], The north beaches with clean water are suitable for tourism,[original research?] Mozambique is a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Diving tourism in Mozambique: an opportunity at risk?. In the same year, Mozambique became a founding member and the first President of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), and maintains close ties with other Portuguese-speaking countries.[16]. Unable to salvage any of their assets, most of them returned to Portugal penniless.[25]. RENAMO did not recognise the validity of the election results, and demanded the control of six provinces – Nampula, Niassa, Tete, Zambezia, Sofala, and Manica – where they claimed to have won a majority. [100][101], Somewhat different from all of these are the languages of the eMakhuwa group, with a loss of initial k-, which means that many nouns begin with a vowel: for example, epula = "rain".[97]. In 1994, the government became a full member of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, in part to broaden its base of international support but also to please the country's sizeable Muslim population. [117] Among the most highly circulated newspapers are state-controlled dailies, such as Noticias and Diário de Moçambique, and the weekly Domingo. In the southern parts of Mozambique—Maputo and Gaza provinces as well as the city of Maputo—the official figures are more than twice as high as the national average. As of July 6, 2017 the exchange rate between the Mozambican metical versus the US dollar was 1 dollar being equal to 60,265.01 meticais. Some[who?] [citation needed]. RENAMO accused FRELIMO of fraud, and threatened to return to civil war, but backed down after taking the matter to the Supreme Court and losing. The only official language of Mozambique is Portuguese, which is spoken mostly as a second language by about half the population. [23], According to the official guerrilla statements, this affected a majority of the indigenous population who suffered both state-sponsored discrimination and enormous social pressure. "Mozambique Island: The Rise and Decline of an East African Coastal City" 2004. [37], By mid-1995, over 1.7 million refugees who had sought asylum in neighbouring countries had returned to Mozambique, part of the largest repatriation witnessed in sub-Saharan Africa. formal providers. There were ten survivors, but President Machel and thirty-three others died, including ministers and officials of the Mozambique government. The use of spices and seasonings such as bay leaves, chili peppers, fresh coriander, garlic, onions, paprika, red sweet peppers, and wine were introduced by the Portuguese, as were maize, millet, potatoes, rice, sorghum, and sugarcane. Rapid expansion in the future hinged on several major foreign investment projects, continued economic reform, and the revival of the agriculture, transportation, and tourism sectors. Presidential and National Assembly elections took place on 1–2 December 2004. Many felt they had received too little opportunity or resources to upgrade their skills and improve their economic and social situation to a degree comparable to that of the Europeans. It first began sending missionaries to Mozambique in 1999, and, as of April 2015, has more than 7,943 members.[108]. FRELIMO won, under Joaquim Chissano, while RENAMO, led by Afonso Dhlakama, ran as the official opposition. [92], Portuguese is the official and most widely spoken language of the nation, spoken by 50.3% of the population. GL Africa Energy (UK) was awarded one of the tenders. There are small Swazi- and Zulu-speaking areas in Mozambique immediately next to the Swaziland and KwaZulu-Natal borders. Infant mortality was at 100 per 1,000 births in 2005. In His successor, Filipe Nyusi, became the fourth President of Mozambique on 15 January 2015. At 309,475 sq mi (801,537 km2), Mozambique is the world's 36th-largest country. Annual precipitation varies from 500 to 900 mm (19.7 to 35.4 in) depending on the region, with an average of 590 mm (23.2 in). In July 2011, the government proposed new anti-corruption laws to criminalise embezzlement, influence peddling and graft, following numerous instances of the theft of public money. The notes issued in 2011 are the ones currently used in Mozambique and include the 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 meticais. The second phase of the coinage period began in July 2016. This is exemplified by the government radio station, Rádio Moçambique, the most popular station in the country. The resettlement of civil war refugees and successful economic reform have led to a high growth rate: the country enjoyed a remarkable recovery, achieving an average annual rate of economic growth of 8% between 1996 and 2006[67] and between 6–7% from 2006 to 2011. [60], The 1984 Nkomati Accord, while failing in its goal of ending South African support to RENAMO, opened initial diplomatic contacts between the Mozambican and South African governments. Both the opposition and observers subsequently cited flaws in the tabulation process that, had they not occurred, might have changed the outcome. In 2007, one million children still did not go to school, most of them from poor rural families, and almost half of all teachers in Mozambique were still unqualified. [66], Mozambique's official currency is the New Metical (as of March 2018, US$1 is roughly equivalent to 62 New Meticals), which replaced old Meticals at the rate of a thousand to one. Mozambique Tax year – Mozambique tax year is the calendar year. [13] Roughly 45,000 people of Indian descent reside in Mozambique. Its capital is Maputo. Although the change of government in Zimbabwe in 1980 removed this threat, the government of South Africa continued to destabilise Mozambique. At the time it was the only nation to have joined the Commonwealth that was never part of the British Empire. Overall loss in HDI value due to inequality, average annual change (%) n.a. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 147 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5s mortality is 29. [119] Most funding and advertising revenue is given to pro-government newspapers. Preparations for privatisation and/or sector liberalisation were made for the remaining parastatal enterprises, including telecommunications, energy, ports, and railways. Through cable and satellite, viewers can access tens of other African, Asian, Brazilian, and European channels. [45] Presidential and National Assembly elections took place on 1–2 December 2004. [citation needed], The north-central provinces of Zambezia and Nampula are the most populous, with about 45% of the population. [86], During Portuguese colonial rule, a large minority of people of Portuguese descent lived permanently in almost all areas of the country,[87] and Mozambicans with Portuguese heritage at the time of independence numbered about 360,000. The old currency was redeemable at the Bank of Mozambique until the end of 2012. The currency code for Meticais is MZN, and the currency symbol is MT. What Type of Government Does Mozambique Have? Tax Filing and tax payment – For employees, tax returns are due by 31 March, with any final tax paid by 30 April. [16] However, in 2012, more than 90% of Mozambique's arable land was still uncultivated. From a military standpoint, the Portuguese regular army maintained control of the population centres while the guerrilla forces sought to undermine their influence in rural and tribal areas in the north and west. The civil war ended in October 1992 with the Rome General Peace Accords, first brokered by the Christian Council of Mozambique (Council of Protestant Churches) and then taken over by Community of Sant'Egidio. [16], The voyage of Vasco da Gama around the Cape of Good Hope in 1498 marked the Portuguese entry into trade, politics, and society of the region. But this is possible only if a candidate is completely prepared. International and domestic observers agreed that the voting process was well organised and went smoothly. As a response to the guerrilla movement, the Portuguese government from the 1960s and principally the early 1970s, initiated gradual changes with new socioeconomic developments and egalitarian policies. The Roman Catholic Church has established twelve dioceses (Beira, Chimoio, Gurué, Inhambane, Lichinga, Maputo, Nacala, Nampula, Pemba, Quelimane, Tete,[106] and Xai-Xai; archdioceses are Beira, Maputo and Nampula). Archived from the original on 2020-03-07. Plans for 2003–04 included Commercial Code reform; comprehensive judicial reform; financial sector strengthening; continued civil service reform; and improved government budget, audit, and inspection capability. Capital: Djibouti. [16], President Chissano won the presidency with a margin of 4% over the RENAMO-Electoral Union coalition candidate, Afonso Dhlakama, and began his five-year term in January 2000. ATMs. [88] Many of these left the country after independence from Portugal in 1975. RENAMO-UE coalition won 116 seats, one went independent, and no third parties are represented. [16] The civil war took about 600 000 lives, by 1990, the number increased to over a million people. The Portuguese were able to wrest much of the coastal trade from Arab Muslims between 1500 and 1700, but, with the Arab Muslim seizure of Portugal's key foothold at Fort Jesus on Mombasa Island (now in Kenya) in 1698, the pendulum began to swing in the other direction. The name of the currency comes from an Arabic word called mithqal. After only two years of independence, the country descended into an intense and protracted civil war lasting from 1977 to 1992. The first phase begins in 1980 where the escudo, which was previously the means of exchange in Mozambique, was replaced by the first metical abbreviated as MZM. Mozambique operates a small, functioning military that handles all aspects of domestic national defence, the Mozambique Defence Armed Forces. The Chopi, for instance, act out battles dressed in animal skins. Western aid by the Scandinavian countries of Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland quickly replaced Soviet support. This was the first time that FRELIMO, RENAMO-UE, and independent parties competed without significant boycotts. Statistics for the dioceses range from a low 5.8% Catholics in the population in the Diocese of Chimoio, to 32.50% in Quelimane diocese (Anuario catolico de Mocambique 2007). [74], In 2010–2011, Anadarko Petroleum and Eni discovered the Mamba South gas field, recoverable reserves of 4,200 billion cubic metres (150 trillion cubic feet) of natural gas in the Rovuma Basin, off the coast of northern Cabo Delgado Province. Northern Mozambique lies within the monsoon trade winds of the Indian Ocean. They listed a whole range of shortcomings by the electoral authorities that benefited the ruling party FRELIMO. Similarly, in 1995 Mozambique joined its Anglophone neighbours in the Commonwealth of Nations. [16] They established agricultural communities or societies based on herding cattle. The provinces are subdivided into 129 districts (distritos). Italy also maintains a profile in Mozambique as a result of its key role during the peace process. Six years later, aluminium-made 1, 10, 20, and 50 meticais were introduced. [16], Mozambique's economy has been shaken by a number of corruption scandals. Similar to the issuing of the coins, the bank notes were also printed in two phases: the first and second phase. Many prazos had declined by the mid-19th century, but several of them survived. There are over 30,000 km (19,000 mi) of roads, but much of the network is unpaved. The men of Makua dress in colourful outfits and masks while dancing on stilts around the village for hours. FRELIMO won 160 seats in Parliament. The sovereign state is separated from the Comoros, Mayotte and Madagascar by the Mozambique Channel to the east. [15] It's believed between the 1st and 5th centuries AD, waves of migration from the west and north went through the Zambezi River valley and then gradually into the plateau and coastal areas of Southern Africa. The principal opposition party, RENAMO, boycotted the local elections, citing flaws in the registration process. Penalties – See topic under corporate tax “Administration and compliance” rules. Particularly important were the gold and ivory caravan routes. Djibouti. The country was named Moçambique by the Portuguese after the Island of Mozambique which was the capital of Portuguese Africa. Rugged highlands are further west; they include the Niassa highlands, Namuli or Shire highlands, Angonia highlands, Tete highlands and the Makonde plateau, covered with miombo woodlands. In 2011 the health authorities estimated about 1.7 million Mozambicans were HIV-positive, of whom 600,000 were in need of anti-retroviral treatment. During the last years of the colonial period, Mozambican art reflected the oppression by the colonial power, and became symbol of the resistance. [citation needed]. However, it was re-established in 1986.[63]. water supply systems. The only difference in these notes was the new state logo imprinted on them. areas of the capital and of four other cities that had access to formal Peace returned to Mozambique, under supervision of the ONUMOZ peacekeeping force of the United Nations. [14] The island-town was the capital of the Portuguese colony until 1898, when it was moved south to Lourenço Marques (now Maputo). The Foreign Exchange Control Regulation (Decree no. There are known to be 740 bird species in Mozambique, including 20 globally threatened species and two introduced species, and over 200 mammal species endemic to Mozambique, including the critically endangered Selous' zebra, Vincent's bush squirrel and 13 other endangered or vulnerable species. The name of the currency comes from an Arabic word called mithqal. Ratio of education and health expenditure to military expenditure. attention, the government has no strategy for urban sanitation yet. [68] The devastating floods of early 2000 slowed GDP growth to 2.1%,[16] but a full recovery was achieved in 2001 with growth of 14.8%. of the urban water supply sector through the creation of an independent The State of the World's Midwifery – Mozambique Country Profile, Country on the east coast of Southern Africa, This article is about the modern country since 1990. It plans to build and operate a 250 MW gas-powered plant. [116], With a nearly 500-year presence in the country, the Portuguese have greatly influenced Mozambique's cuisine. Armando Guebuza was inaugurated as the President of Mozambique on 2 February 2005. Water supply and sanitation in Mozambique is characterised by low levels of access to an improved water source [77], The country's natural environment, wildlife, and historic heritage provide opportunities for beach, cultural, and eco-tourism. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com. Its coastline, fronting the Mozambique Channel, which separates mainland Africa from the island of Madagascar, offers some of Africa’s best natural harbors. ( LDS Church ) has established a growing presence in the north of the Tsonga group which! Tribe to tribe which are not available to consumers and are for informational purposes only ministers graft., ran as the President of Mozambique was ruled by Portugal, the rate... Through cable and satellite, viewers can access tens of other African, Asian, Brazilian, and the Union!, Indian associations as well as on the southeast coast of Lake Malawi, as well on! 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