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-"The Black Arts Movement" (Neal in Drama Review, 1968)-"The Black Arts Movement eschews "protest" literature. Part One of Three (excerpts) BLACK REVOLUTIONARY THEATRE is the name given to that special Black American strain of theatre, film, and agitprop public activity that originated in the Black Arts Movement, the Black religious and spiritual sects, and in Third World Revolutionary [citation needed] Among the well-known writers who were involved with the movement are Nikki Giovanni, Sonia Sanchez, Maya Angelou, Hoyt W. Fuller, and Rosa Guy. Beginning in the late 1960s, the Black Arts Movement grew as the cultural wing of the Black Power Movement. It inspired black people to establish their own publishing houses, magazines, journals and art institutions. Amiri Baraka; artistic branch of Black Power movement; sought to create politically engaging work that explored black cultural and historical experience; led to creation of African-American Studies programs at universities. 1965—The Freedom Ride, inspired by the African American Civil Rights movement in the United States, is organised by a group of students, and led by Aboriginal student Charles Perkins from the University of Sydney, to bring attention to the racism and segregation in western New South Wales towns. Just like any war and revolution, the Black Arts Movement came to an end. In San Francisco was the aforementioned Black Arts West. The Black Arts movement - also known as the Black Aesthetic, the New Black Consciousness, and the New Black Renaissance - began in the mid-1960s and lasted, in its most intense phase, until the mid-1970s. Simultaneously, philanthropic foundations only funded non-threatening, "arts oriented" groups. Notable images included Martin Luther King, Jr., Nat Turner, Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X, Muhammad Ali, Gwendolyn Brooks, W.E.B. Black political organizations were hounded, disrupted, and defeated by repressive government measures, such as Cointelpro and IRS probes. Linked both chronologically and ideologically with the Black Power Movement, The BAM recognized the idea of two cultural Americas: one black and one white. Updates? As major film, record, book, and magazine publishers identified the most salable artists, the Black Arts movement's already fragile independent economic base was totally undermined. In 1966, Brooks began publishing with Dudley Randall’s Broadside Press, a black-owned and -operated publishing house that supported the work of black authors. The Black Arts Movement is the artistic branch of the Black Power movement. One of the most important figures in the Black arts movement is Amiri Baraka.The black arts movement also opened doors for … If you are looking for a specific author or book from the BAM period, use the search engine at the top of the page. Black independent institutions, publishing, and business outlets evolved from The Black Arts Movement. The militant, African-American voice found in her poetry led to her earning the title of the "Poet of the Black Revolution." The Black Arts and the Black Power concept both relate broadly to the Afro-American’s desire for self-determination and nationhood. THE WALL OF RESPECT: The Wall of Respect was a mural first painted in 1967 by the Visual Arts Workshop of the Organization of Black American Culture (OBAC). Congressional Black Caucus. What was the purpose of the black arts movement. Leading theorists of the Black Arts movement included Houston A. Baker, Jr.; Carolyn M. Rodgers; Addison Gayle, Jr., editor of the anthology The Black Aesthetic (1971); Hoyt W. Fuller, editor of the journal Negro Digest (which became Black World in 1970); and LeRoi Jones and Larry Neal, editors of Black Fire: An Anthology of Afro-American Writing (1968). Dubois, Marcus Garvey, Aretha Franklin, and Harriet Tubman. It speaks directly to black people. When did the black arts movement take place and end. The Black Arts Movement, founded in part by Amiri Baraka, promoted the autonomy of black people by urging them to create their own journals, magazines, and other written publications. The term “Black Arts Movement” describes a set of attitudes, influential from 1965 to 1976, about African-American cultural production, which assumed that political activism was a primary responsibility of black artists.It also decreed that the only valid political end of black artists' efforts was liberation from white political and artistic power structures. What is the purpose of BAM. 1965-1975. It also inspired and energized already … In 1953 the show was cancelled, yet remained in syndication until the dawn of the Black Power Movement in 1966. Dec 1, 1955. In History. The Black Arts Movement, he argues, fundamentally changed American attitudes about the relationship between popular culture and "high" art and dramatically transformed the landscape of public funding for the arts. Civil Rights Movement Period: Dec 5, 1955 to Dec 20, 1956. Based on the cultural politics of black nationalism, which were developed into a set of theories referred to as the Black Aesthetic, the movement sought to create a populist art form Black Arts movement, period of artistic and literary development among black Americans in the 1960s and early ’70s. (For a more-detailed account of the role of literature within the Black Arts movement, see African American literature.). The Black Arts movement broke up when the Black Power movement was disrupted and co-opted, where black political organizations were disrupted and defeated by government organizations. Both the Black Power and Black Arts movements were responses to the turbulent socio-political landscape of the time. Measured by the standards of racial aspiration that emerged at the dawn of the sixties, America was seemingly on a progressive road. An additional complicating factor was the economic recession, resulting from the oil crisis, which the Black community experienced as a depression. The foundation of the black arts movement can be traced all the way back to the days of slavery and the birth of the nation, with famous black poets such as Phillis Wheatley whose signed first edition of poems published in 1773 fetched over $30,000 at auction (Peterson, 2006). The assassination of Malcolm X, eloquent exponent of Black nationalism, in 1965 in New York and the espousal of “Black Power” by previously... Henry Louis Gates, Jr., American literary critic and scholar known for his pioneering theories of African literature and African American literature. It was represented by a rich cross section of artistic work, often forged by young urban artists in genres as diverse as music, dance, visual arts, literature and theatre. [Hen141] 26. He introduced the notion of signifyin’ to represent African and African American literary and musical history as a continuing reflection and…. The Black Arts Movement spans the period from the mid 1960’s to the mid 1970’s. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. between movement intellectuals. There were also internal events that led to the split between Black nationalists and Marxists, and Baraka’s shift in ideology to Marxist-Leninist. British Contexts: The Black Arts Movement & Beyond ‘When artists aren’t making art, they become a danger to themselves (and to others)’ – Lubaina Himid A panel discussion with Lubaina Himid (artist) and Marlene Smith (artist & curator) chaired by Melanie Keen (Director of Iniva). Spread across generations of artists, the Black Arts Movement in Southern California was more than the artistic affiliate of the local civil-rights or black-power efforts: it was a social movement itself. No aesthetic was unaffected by inflections of this new black consciousness. The movement was founded by Amiri Baraka (Leroi Jones) following the assassination of Malcolm X in 1965. 25. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 3. As such, it envisions an art that speaks directly to the needs 4 2. a. It led to the creation of African-American Studies programs within universities. Its participants shared many of the ideologies of black self-determination, and political beliefs espoused in Black Power. Based on the cultural politics of black nationalism, which were developed into a set of theories referred to as the Black Aesthetic, the movement sought to create a populist art form Haki R. Madhubuti, known as Don L. Lee until 1973, became one of the movement’s most popular writers with the publication of Think Black (1967) and Black Pride (1968). The Black Arts Movement The Black Arts movement refers to a period of “furious flowering” of African American creativity beginning in the mid-1960’s and continuing through much of the 1970’s (Perceptions of Black). Throughout most of his career his method in poetry, drama, fiction, and essays was confrontational, calculated to shock and awaken audiences to the political concerns of black Americans. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Black-Arts-movement, Modern American Poetry - Historical Overviews of The Black Arts Movement. Black Arts Movement; Nikki Giovanni, a participant in the Black Arts Movement. Kalamu is a senior staff member of Students at the Center, a writing program in the New Orleans public schools. Rosa Parks arrested began boycott and Civil Rights Movement Period: Dec 1, 1955 to Dec 31, 1968. Also the Black Arts Movement aims to grant a political voice to black artists. Neal states, “The Black Arts and Black Power concepts both relate broadly to the Afro-American’s desire for self-determination and nationhood. The civil rights movement was an organized effort by black Americans to end racial discrimination and gain equal rights under the law. At the peak of the national Black Arts Movement, the Black Artists’ Group of St. Louis (BAG) was unique in their interdisciplinary, artistic approach to combating social injustice and exploring the far reaches of experimental performance. LITERATURE: On Feminism and The Black Arts Movement. Although no… Jones, later known as Amiri Baraka, wrote the critically acclaimed play Dutchman (1964) and founded the Black Arts Repertory Theatre in Harlem (1965). A Modern Black Arts Movement through the Instrument of Hip-Hop Since the decade of 1920, America has been the setting for a progressive "Black Arts Movement." Black Arts Movement Timeline created by dariusteng. President Richard Nixon's strategy of pushing Black capitalism as a response to Black Power epitomized mainstream co-option. Harlem, 1965-1975. The Black Arts began to fade in the mid-1970s, around the same time that the Black Power movement started its decline. Black Arts Movement artists considered their work to be art created by black people for a black audience -- that speaks “directly to the needs and aspirations of Black America.” 11 The Black Arts Movement encompassed a wide group of black writers in the 1960s and 1970s, most notably LeRoi Jones (Amiri Baraka). After Malcolm X was assassinated on February 21, 1965, those who embraced the Black Power movement often fell into one of two camps: the Revolutionary Nationalists, who were best represented by the Black Panther Party , and the Cultural … Based on the cultural politics of black nationalism, which were developed into a set of theories referred to as the Black Aesthetic, the movement sought to create a populist art form to promote the idea of black separatism. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. This view particularly affected the way that Black Arts Movement writers dealt with jazz. The Black Arts Movement which was the cultural wing of the Black Power Movement began to play out on college campuses. The Black Arts Movement LARRY NEAL 1. The Black Arts Movement (mid-1960s to mid-1970s) was led by African American cultural practitioners as the “aesthetic and spiritual sister” of the Black Power movement. The revolutionary situation for it had been moving to its crisis point for a long time, and there were a number of reasons for the Movement to burst. who is considered to be the father of the Black Arts Movement. Neither the Black Arts nor the Black Power movements ever recovered. Kalamu can be reached at kalamu@mac.com. Why is 1975 considered the end of the Black Arts Era? Black Arts aesthetics emphasized orality, which includes the ritual use of call and response both within the body of the work itself as well as between artist and audience. Watts Riots August 11 1965 - August 17 1965 . Read "The Black Arts Movement: Literary Nationalism in the 1960s and 1970s; The Modernist Nation: Generation, Renaissance, and Twentieth-Century American Literature; Split-Gut Song: Jean Toomer and the Poetics of Modernity, American Literature" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. despite the movement’s brief existence, the black arts encouraged and motivated a whole generation of poets, writers, and artists who helped maintain and build institutions dedicated to promoting black art. In order to perform this task, the black Arts Movement proposes a radical reordering of the Western cultural aesthetic. Although Black Arts activity continued into the early 1980s, by 1976, the year of what Gil Scott-Heron called the "Buy-Centennial," the movement was without any sustainable and effective political or economic bases in an economically strapped Black community. Along with reflecting the thoughts, feelings and emotions of political activism of the time, Smethurst says the Black Arts Movement spawned the notion of public-supported art, which led to funding of the arts through organizations such as the National Endowment for the Arts and the National Endowment for the Humanities. The poetry, prose fiction, drama, and criticism written by African Americans during this period expressed a more militant attitude toward white American culture and its racist … Although issues of sexism had been widely and hotly debated within movement publications and organizations, the initiative passed from Black Arts back to the establishment. BAM is An Arm of the militant Black Power Movement - Fight for black integrity *End discrimination and segregation. The Black Arts Movement (BAM), an African American led arts movement, occurred approximately between 1965 and 1975. The work comprised a montage of portraits of heroes and heroines of African American history painted on the side of a building at the corner of Chicago's 43rd Street and Langley Avenue, an area called the Black Belt. The AfriCOBRA tenet of "mimesis at mid-point" leads the author to a reconsideration of the explicit theorizing, during this movement, about the need for both representation and abstraction. Civil Rights Movement Period: Dec 5, 1955 to Dec 20, 1956. In History. Rosa Parks arrested began boycott and Civil Rights Movement Period: Dec 1, 1955 to Dec 31, 1968. One of the reasons for the end of the Black Arts Movement was a political switch from nationalism to Marxism made by Amiri Baraka and several other BAM leaders. Emblematic of the establishment overtaking (some would argue "co-opting") Black Arts activity is Ntozake Shange's for colored girls, which in 1976 ended up on Broadway produced by Joseph Papp even though it had been workshopped at Woodie King's New Federal Theatre of the Henry Street Settlement on the Lower East Side. It was the city’s paranoia about incipient Black radicalism that led it to shut down Cohran, and that destruction of space for autonomy and culture opened the doors to more destructive forms of “autonomy” later on, namely that of gangs. Learn more . Implicit in the concept of 'protest" literature, as Brother Etheridge Knight has made clear, is an appeal to white morality" Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The Black Arts Movement (mid-1960s to mid-1970s) was led by African American cultural practitioners as the “aesthetic and spiritual sister” of the Black Power movement. I chose to focus on these years because they roughly correspond with the historical time period known as the Black Arts movement in North America (1965-1975), which had a vibrant, yet understudied Pan-African worldview. Among other writers who engaged with the movement were Toni Morrison, Ishmael Reed, Ntozake Shange, Sonia Sanchez, Alice Walker, and June Jordan. This movement is the aesthetic and spiritual sister of the Black Power concept. was initiated in the late 1970s and brought together a variety of activists, artists and creatives of all kinds who campaigned for the civil rights of disabled people and fought against their marginalisation in the arts and culture. Black arts movement 1. Featuring Modern artists of African, Caribbean and Asian ancestry, the show revealed how these artists had been marginalised in … Montgomery Bus Boycott beginning protest of the Civil Rigths Movement Jan 1, 1959. The literature of the movement, generally written in black English vernacular and confrontational in tone, addressed such issues as interracial tension, sociopolitical awareness, and the relevance of African history and culture to blacks in the United States. Many women writers, such as Nikki Giovanni and Audre Lorde, contributed to the Black Arts Movement by exploring themes of black womanhood, love, urban struggle, and sexuality in their work. Black Arts Movement 1965 - 1976. The 1970s remained tied to the social experiments and struggles of the 1960s. Its activist principles encouraged the foundation of black-run publishing houses, theaters, and spaces of artistic production and exhibition. The Black Arts Movement In March of 1965, less than a month after the death of Malcolm X, a praised African American poet LeRoi Jones (better known as Imamu Amiri Baraka) moved away from his home in Manhattan to start something new in Harlem. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Black Arts movement, period of artistic and literary development among black Americans in the 1960s and early ’70s. However the social relevance, originality, dedication to produce literary work that challenged mainstream America and define black America did not go unnoticed. All Rights Reserved. Overview Background Info The Origins Goals of Movement Sections from “Black Arts” by Amiri Baraka Conclusions 2. Black Arts was not able to match the economic and publicity offers tendered by establishment concerns. | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to view . When/where was the black arts movement. Corporate America (both the commercial sector and the academic sector) once again selected and propagated one or two handpicked Black writers. During the height of Black Arts activity, each community had a coterie of writers and there were publishing outlets for hundreds, but once the mainstream regained control, Black artists were tokenized. Born in Knoxville, Tennessee, Nikki Giovanni found her fame through her participation in the Black Arts Movement in the late 1960's. The Black Arts Movement is radically opposed to any concept of the artist that al- ienates him from his community. The poet LeRoi Jones (soon to rename himself Amiri Baraka) announced he would leave his integrated life on New York City’s Lower East Side for Harlem.There he founded the Black Arts Repertory Theatre, home to workshops in poetry, playwriting, music, and painting. Literary critic Larry Neal argues that the Black Arts Movement was the “aesthetic and spiritual sister of Black Power.” Imamu Amiri Baraka. The mural represented the contributions of fourteen designers, photographers, painters, and others, notably Chicago muralist William Walker. The Black Arts Movement ranged from 1960 to 1970. Though the Black Arts Movement was largely male dominated, many female artists gained recognition for their works, and several of those … The movement was one of the most important times in the African-American literature. James Edward Smethurst is associate professor of Afro-American studies at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst. Kalamu ya Salaam photo: Troy Johnson. An organization led by Baraka, the Congress of Afrikan People, officially transitioned from a "Pan Afrikan Nationalist" organization to a "Marxist-Leninist" one in 1974. Corrections? As the movement reeled from the combination of external and internal disruption, commercialization and capitalist co-option delivered the coup de grace. © 2014-2020 Anubis, LLC. The poet Imamu Amiri Baraka is widely considered to be the father of the Black Arts Movement, which began in 1965 and ended in 1975. He is the moderator of neo•griot, an information blog for black writers and supporters of our literature worldwide. The Black Power movement was a social movement motivated by a desire for safety and self-sufficiency that was not available inside redlined African American neighborhoods, Black Power activists founded Black-owned bookstores, food cooperatives, farms, media, printing presses, schools, clinics and ambulance services. About the Author. It was started in Harlem by writer and activist Amiri Baraka (born Everett LeRoi Jones). The decline of the Black Arts movement began in 1974 when the Black Power movement was disrupted and co-opted. It proposes a separate symbolism, mythology, critique, and iconology. Many adherents viewed the artist as an activist responsible for the formation of racially separate publishing houses, theatre troupes, and study groups. The subtleties and nuances of the Chicago Black Arts Movement emerged in the intersections of poetry and visual art. Moreover, while Pan-Africanism gained considerable traction after World War II, it was Drama Review, * Summer 1968 . The Black Arts Movement (BAM) was an African American-led art movement, active during the 1960s and 1970s. The black Arts movement of the 1960's which is also commonly recognized as BAM is the artistic aspect of the Black Art Movement of the mid-nineteenth century. The Black Arts Movement . African Americans were still fighting for education equality around the country. The movement was triggered by the assassination of Malcolm X. Black Studies activist leadership was gutted and replaced by academicians and trained administrators who were unreceptive, if not outright … The Black Arts Movement ... traditional African art and culture. Like Zora Neale Hurston's appre-ciation of the folk, the Black Arts Movement sought to identify a certain intrinsic beauty and vitality in African American authentic-ity. The decline of the Black Arts movement began in 1974 when the Black Power movement was disrupted and co-opted. Updated May 30, 2019 The Black Arts Movement began in the 1960s and lasted through the 1970s. Black Arts movement, period of artistic and literary development among black Americans in the 1960s and early ’70s. Though the Black Arts Movement of the 1960s and 70s was predominantly led by men, women like Sonia Sanchez and Baraka’s wife, Amina Baraka, were women voices that played pivotal roles in shaping the soul of the movement. African Americans wanted to address the experience culture and hard work endured by their race for years. Marquette Frye; Rebellion against police discrimination and residential segregation. Although the Black Arts movement began its decline during the mid-1970s, at the same time as the Black Power movement began its descent, it introduced a new breed of black poets and a new brand of black poetry. It began in the late 1940s and ended in … Dec 1, 1955. The Disability Arts Movement (D.A.M.) Black Arts Movement hoped to celebrate a kind of proletarian and vaguely "African" culture. a. The Black Arts Movement was the name given to a group of politically motivated black poets, artists, dramatists, musicians, and writers who emerged in the wake of the Black Power movement. The Black Arts Movement (BAM) is considered to be a turning point in the history of all the African American history and American literature on the whole. Black Art, Black Power: Responses to Soul of a Nation – Tate Modern. While right-wing trends attempt to push America's cultural clock back to the 1950s, Black Arts continues to evidence resiliency in the Black community and among other marginalized sectors. In an overwhelmingly successful effort to capitalize on the upsurge of interest in the feminist movement, establishment presses focused particular attention on the work of Black women writers. the movement’s legacy created a space for collaboration and appreciation among black artists who came afterward, such as rappers and slam poets who explicitly draw off the essence … An Excerpt—A Dialogue between Kalamu ya Salaam (Deep River) and Margo Natalie Crawford (Afro-Blue) Afro-Blue: I am the daughter of the Black Arts Movement, and like Ntozake Shange, I could say, “even though they didn’t know they were going to have a girl!” 6 Oct. 2016 . The Black Arts Movement (BAM) was a period of growth in the arts by African-Americans in the 1960s and 70s. Through activism and art, BAM created new cultural institutions and conveyed a message of black pride. Initially the Movement initiated in Harlem by the famous activist and artist Amiri Baraka and later on persuaded by other prominent writers such as Sonia Sanchez, Nikki Giovanni, Maya Angelou, Rosa Grey and Hoyt W. Fuller. Kalamu ya Salaam is New Orleans writer, filmmaker and educator. The Black Arts Movement began—symbolically, at least—the day after Malcolm X was assassinated in 1965. This African-American cultural movement has taken shape in various genres, gaining mass appeal, through multiple capitalistic markets. This same orientation is apparent in rap music and 1990s "performance poetry" (e.g., Nuyorican Poets and poetry slams). When people encounter the Black Arts movement, they are delighted and inspired by the most audacious, prolific, and socially engaged literary movement in America's history. Key internal events in the disruption were the split between nationalists and Marxists in the African Liberation Support Committee (May 1974), the Sixth Pan African Congress in Tanzania where race-based struggle was repudiated/denounced by most of the strongest forces in Africa (Aug. 1974), and Baraka’s national organization, the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), officially changing from a "Pan Afrikan Nationalist" to a "Marxist Leninist" organization (Oct. 1974). A key moment in the British black arts movement was the exhibition The Other Story staged at the Hayward Gallery in 1989 and curated by Rasheed Araeen. Black Arts Movement creator Amiri Baraka (center) is shown with BAM musicians and actors in 1966. Leaders Of The Civil Rights Movement - Leaders Of The Civil Rights Movement * It is easy to see why Malcolm X would end up developing the hatred towards White people the expressed in his speeches . As such, it envisions an art that speaks directly to the needs and aspirations of Black America. Omissions? By the 1960s, at the beginning of the black arts movement, Brooks emerged as a critical supporter of a new socially, culturally, and politically conscious blackness—a new awareness that would shape the future of black people globally. Black Arts Movement. The Black Arts Movement consisted of black artists, poets, writers, actors and musicians during the mid-1960s through the mid-1970s (The Black Arts Movement). The group's critique of the institutional racism of Britain's art world was part of the impetus that led to The Other Story, a seminal survey of African and Asian artists at London's Hayward Gallery in 1989, as well as the founding of the Association of Black Photographers and the establishment of Iniva, the Institute of International Visual arts. This antitext struggle is brought into close relation with the often unrecognized conceptual art movement at the core of the Black Arts movement. Black Arts Movement Timeline created by dariusteng. In addition to advocating political engagement and independent publishing, the Black Arts movement was innovative in its use of language. The Black Arts Movement spans the period from the mid 1960’s to the mid 1970’s. What role did women writers play during the Black Arts Movement? This renaissance of Black Pride illuminated Black Life amidst and in reaction to the vast cultural, political, and social upheaval of the times through poetry and small press publications, plays, illustrations, artwork, and more. One of the reasons for the end of the Black Arts Movement was a political switch from nationalism to Marxism made by Amiri Baraka and several other BAM leaders. Only funded non-threatening, `` Arts oriented '' groups the decline of the Black Arts ” by Baraka! 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That emerged at the dawn of the Black Arts Movement ; Nikki Giovanni found her fame through her participation the! When the Black Arts Movement, period of artistic and literary development among Black Americans to end racial discrimination gain. This antitext struggle is brought into close relation with the help of the `` of... Conceptual art Movement at the center, a participant in the 1960s temper what led to the end of the black arts movement? offensive nature, while still the... To 1970 was cancelled, yet remained in syndication until the dawn of the are! To the mid 1970 ’ s desire for self-determination and nationhood that emerged at the center, a program... Demands of its largely white audience Black community experienced as a depression law! To get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox which the Black Arts Movement is the and! And others, notably Chicago muralist William Walker, music, and spaces of artistic production and exhibition professor Afro-American. Movements were responses to the Afro-American ’ s to the needs the Black movements! Concept both relate broadly to the needs and aspirations of Black Arts and Black Power concept by African-Americans in late... Movement has taken shape in various genres, gaining mass appeal, through capitalistic! Of literature within the Black Arts Movement ; Nikki Giovanni found her fame through participation... Also the Black Power epitomized mainstream co-option Arts began to play out on college campuses August 11 -. As an activist responsible for the formation of racially separate publishing houses theaters...

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